Chi-Square Test in Python


To write program of chi-square test using python. 

What is chi-square test?

Chi-square test which means “Pearson’s chi-square test” here, is a method of statistical hypothesis testing for goodness-of-fit and independence.

Goodness-of-fit test is the testing to determine whether the observed frequency distribution is the same as the theoretical distribution.
Independence test is the testing to determine whether 2 observations that is represented by 2*2 table, on 2 variables are independent of each other.

Details will be longer. Please see the following sites and document.


The following is implementation for chi-square test.

Import libraries

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import scipy as sp
from scipy import stats

Data preparing

gourp Agroup Bgroup C
success rate0.1870.5960.570



Read and Set Data

csv_line = []
with open('chi_square_data.csv', ) as f:
    for i in f:
        items = i.split(',')
        for j in range(len(items)):
            if '\n' in items[j]:
                items[j] =float(items[j][:-1])
                items[j] =float(items[j])
group = csv_line[0]
success = [int(n) for n in csv_line[1]]
failure = [int(n) for n in csv_line[2]]

groups = [] 
result =[]
count = []
for i in range(len(group)):
    groups += [group[i], group[i]] #['A','A', 'B', 'B', 'C', 'C']
    result += ['success', 'failure'] #['success', 'failure', 'success', 'failure', 'success', 'failure']
    count += [success[i], failure[i]] #[23, 100, 65, 44, 158, 119]
data =  pd.DataFrame({
    'groups' : groups,
    'result' : result,
    'count' : count
cross_data = pd.pivot_table(
    data = data,
    values ='count',
    aggfunc = 'sum',
    index = 'groups',
    columns = 'result'
>>result  failure  success
A           100       23
B            44       65
C           119      158

Chi-square test

print(stats.chi2_contingency(cross_data, correction=False))
>> (57.23616422920877, 3.726703617716424e-13, 2, array([[ 63.554,  59.446],
       [ 56.32 ,  52.68 ],
       [143.126, 133.874]]))
  • chi2 : 57.23616422920877
    • The test statistic
  • p : 3.726703617716424e-13
    • The p-value of the test
  • dof : 2
    • Degrees of freedom
  • expected : array
    • The expected frequencies, based on the marginal sums of the table.

The smaller the p-value, the stronger the evidence that you should reject the null hypothesis.
When statistically significant, that is, p-value is less than 0.05 (typically ≤ 0.05), the difference between groups is significant.